Tuesday, December 11, 2012

Roundup of Radial Arm Maze Papers for 2012

Picking the best: Recent Key Publications using the Radial Arm Maze

Here is a pick of some of our favorites for 2012 using the radial arm maze.

Highly cited

G Gilmour, S Dix, L Fellini, F Gastambide, N Plath, 2012 - Elsevier
... Images Images, Journal/Book title, Volume, Issue, Page, Search tips. ... Attempting to map
ketamine-induced deficits in HVs to the generalized cognitive impairments of schizophrenia meets ... The radial arm maze is a non-operant working memory task that does require maintenance of ...
Young dentate granule cells mediate pattern separation, whereas old granule cells facilitate pattern completion
T Nakashiba, JD Cushman, KA Pelkey, S Renaudineau¦ - Cell, 2012 - Elsevier
... For another test of behavioral discrimination, we used a delayed nonmatching to place (DNMP) task in an eight-arm radial maze. ... were previously shown to be impaired in this task when the reward arm was relatively close to the sample arm (Clelland et al ... 

Worth reading

Memory Deficits of British Dementia Knock-In Mice Are Prevented by Aβ-Precursor Protein Haploinsufficiency
R Tamayev, L D'Adamio - The Journal of Neuroscience, 2012 - Soc Neuroscience
... The task studied with the radial arm water maze (RAWM) test has been described previously ... 1 min, and errors were counted each time the mouse entered the wrong arm or needed ... the platform and speed were recorded with a video tracking system
Tyr682 in the Ab-precursor protein intracellular domain regulates synaptic connectivity, cholinergic function, and cognitive performance
C Matrone, S Luvisetto, LR La Rosa, R Tamayev 2012
... APP, Ab-precursor protein; RAWM, radial-arm water maze. ... Each trial lasted 1 min, and errors were counted each time the mouse entered the wrong arm or needed ... Time to reach the platform and speed were recorded with a video tracking system
Tyr682 in the AB precursor protein intracellular domain regulates synaptic connectivity, cholinergic function, and cognitive performance
C Matrone, S Luvisetto, LR La Rosa, R Tamayev - Aging , 2012 - Wiley Online Library
... To further test the memory, we performed novel object recognition (NOR) and radial-arm water maze (RAWM ... min, and errors were counted each time the mouse entered the wrong arm or needed ... and speed were recorded with a video tracking system 

Cell Therapy: A Safe and Efficacious Therapeutic Treatment for Alzheimer's Disease in APP+ PS1 Mice
NR Nabar, F Yuan, X Lin, L Wang, G Bai, J Mayl, Y Li¦ - PLOS ONE, 2012 
... The Radial Arm Water Maze (RAWM) system was a small pool (diameter: 90 cm, depth ... Both the number of errors (incorrect arm choices) and escape latency were recorded for ... on each trial was videotaped and analyzed with image tracking software
Learning strategy is influenced by trait anxiety and early rearing conditions in prepubertal male, but not prepubertal female rats
EM Grissom, WR Hawley, SS Bromley-Dulfano¦ of Learning and , 2012 - Elsevier
... Time spent and the number of entries into the open and closed arms were recorded by a
computerized tracking system (HVS Image, Ltd.). ... During a 15-min information trial, rats were
allowed to explore the start arm and a second arm, but access to the third arm was blocked by ...
Reactivation of an aversive memory modulates learning strategy preference in male rats
WR Hawley, EM Grissom, JM Patel, KS Hodges¦ - Stress, 2012 - informahealthcare.com
... Trials were monitored by an overhead video camera interfaced with tracking software ... reminder of a footshock immediately prior to a retention trial on a water-based version of
the radial-arm maze task effectively disrupted retrieval of a spatial memory. ...
Lentivirus-mediated chronic expression of dominant-negative CREB in the dorsal hippocampus impairs memory for place learning and contextual fear conditioning
B Kathirvelu, BS East, AR Hill, CA Smith¦ - Neurobiology of Learning ¦, 2012 - Elsevier
... in the hippocampus after training on various spatial and non-spatial tasks including the radial
arm maze (Mizuno ... x 20.5 cm (L x W) was fixed at one end of the arm 2 cm ... of performance in the
water maze were obtained with a computer tracking system 
Effect of intranasal manganese administration on neurotransmission and spatial learning in rats
K Blecharz-Klin, A Piechal, I Joniec-Maciejak¦ - Toxicology and Applied ¦, 2012 - Elsevier
... water maze task included escape latency and swim speed were automatically recorded using
an HVS image analyzing system ... View thumbnail images Figure options. ... with reports of reference
and working memory impairments in animals tested in 8-arm radial maze caused by ...

Chronic inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin modulates cognitive and non-cognitive components of behavior throughout lifespan in mice
J Halloran, S Hussong, R Burbank, N Podlutskaya¦ - Neuroscience, 2012 - Elsevier
... Data were compiled offline using HVS Image and then compiled with Microsoft Excel before
statistical analyses. 1.2.7. Western blotting. ... Gresack JE, Frick KM (Male mice exhibit better spatial
working and reference memory than females in a water-escape radial arm maze task. ...

Both the dorsal hippocampus and the dorsolateral striatum are needed for rat navigation in the Morris water maze
E Miyoshi, EC Wietzikoski, M Bortolanza¦ - Behavioural brain ¦, 2012 - Elsevier
... learn the spatial version of the Morris water maze and the win-shift (spatial) version of the 8-arm radial maze task ... distance and latency to reach the escape platform, swimming speed, and swimming paths were recorded by an image analyzer 
Supplemental dietary choline during development exerts antidepressant-like effects in adult female rats
MJ Glenn, RS Adams, L McClurg - Brain research, 2012 - Elsevier
... The previously reported effects are mainly evident when challenging tasks are employed, like
the 12-arm radial arm maze. ... Their movements during the test were tracked and summarized
using a computerized tracking system
Acute footshock-stress increases spatial learning“memory and correlates to increased hippocampal BDNF and VEGF and cell numbers in adolescent male and ¦
N Uysal, AR Sisman, A Dayi, S Ozbal, F Cetin¦ - Neuroscience ¦, 2012 - Elsevier
... of the escape invisible platform. Each rat was exposed to the task for 4 consecutive
days (total 20 trials), and on day 5 a probe trial was run. The learning tests recorded
and evaluated with HVS-image video-tracking-system. ...
Maternal docosahexaenoic acid feeding protects against impairment of learning and memory and oxidative stress in prenatally stressed rats: possible role of neuronal ¦
Z Feng, X Zou, H Jia, X Li, Z Zhu, X Liu¦ - ¦ & Redox Signaling, 2012 - online.liebertpub.com
... 62). Spatial learning has also been found to be impaired in rats after administration
of NOS inhibitors using the radial-arm maze (7, 62). ... animals. Latency and swim
patterns were digitally tracked by HVS Image Water 2020
Changes in insulin-signaling transduction pathway underlie learning/memory deficits in an Alzheimer's disease rat model
X Han, Y Ma, X Liu, L Wang, S Qi, Q Zhang¦ - Journal of Neural ¦, 2012 - Springer
... guided to and placed on the platform for 30 s. The interval between two trials was 60 s. An
overhead camera connected to a computerized tracking system recorded the swim- ming paths and time (escape latencies) of the rats to locate the platform. ...
Persistent impairments in hippocampal, dorsal striatal, and prefrontal cortical function following repeated photoperiod shifts in rats
EL Zelinski, AV Tyndall, NS Hong¦ - Experimental Brain ¦, 2012 - Springer
... The clear Plexiglas platform (10 9 10 cm) was concealed approximately 2“3 cm below
the surface of the water. Data were collected using a computer rat tracking system . ... Visual discrimination task: 8-arm radial maze ...

Agmatine selectively improves behavioural function in aged male Sprague-Dawley rats
M Rushaidhi, ND Collie, H Zhang, P Liu - Neuroscience, 2012 - Elsevier
... Images Images, Journal/Book title, Volume, Issue, Page, Search tips. ... behavioural performance
in the inhibitory avoidance task, water maze, object recognition and radial arm maze tasks ...
behaviour was video taped and analysed offline by a computerised tracking system

Memory in aged mice is rescued by enhanced expression of the GluN2B subunit of the NMDA receptor
BL Brim, R Haskell, R Awedikian, NM Ellinwood¦ - Behavioural Brain ¦, 2012 - Elsevier
... medial and orbital prefrontal cortices are important for both spatial long-term and short-term
memory in the radial arm and Morris ... For mice that received hippocampal injections, the Atlantis platform (HVS Image Ltd., Twickenham, Middlesex, UK) was used for the escape platform ...
The effects of enhanced expression of the GluN2B (NR2B) subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor on memory in aged animals
BL Brim - 2012 - scholarsarchive.library.oregonstate. ¦
... Strasser et al. 2001), the Barnes maze (Barnes 1979), the eight-arm radial maze (Olton
and Samuelson ... and working memory in the radial arm maze and the Morris water maze
(Kolb, Sutherland et al. 1983; Kolb, Buhrmann et al. 1994). ...

Thursday, November 8, 2012

What constitutes a 'visit' in the radial arm maze?

Different experimenters seem to be setting different thresholds here which ultimately affects the sensitivity or at least signal-to-noise of the test. So what constitutes a 'visit' in the radial arm maze? We'll be reporting right here what the issues are and how it affects significance and reproducibility of studies.

Olton and Samuelson's Radial Arm Maze (1976)


The radial arm maze was designed by Olton and Samuelson in 1976 to measure spatial learning and memory in rats. The original apparatus consists of eight equidistantly spaced arms, each about 4 feet long, and all radiating from a small circular central platform (later versions have used as few as three and as many as 48 arms). At the end of each arm there is a food site, the contents of which are not visible from the central platform.

The design ensures that, after checking for food at the end of each arm, the rat is always forced to return to the central platform before making another choice. As a result, the rat always has eight possible options. Elaborate controls are used to ensure that the rats are not simply using their sense of smell, either to sense unclaimed food objects or to sense their own tracks.

Olton and Samuelson found that rats have excellent memories for visited and or unvisited arms; they made, on average, about 7.0 novel entries in their first 8 choices, and thus were 88% correct.[1] Chance performance with eight arms would be 5.3 novel entries in the first 8 choices (66% correct). Olton and Samuelson also found when they switched some already-visited arms into as yet unvisited locations partway through a trial, the rats tended to visit as-yet unvisited locations even when doing so meant running down arms that had already been traversed, and tended to avoid arms that had not yet been traversed but were now in previously visited locations. It seems that in remembering locations on the radial arm maze, rats do not rely on local intra-maze cues, but rather on extra-maze cues.

The maze has since been used by researchers interested in studying the spatial learning and spatial memory of animals. For example, Olton, Collison, and Werz found that performance declined only slightly to 82% novel entries in the first 17 entries on a 17-arm maze. Roberts found no decline in the percentage of correct choices as the number of arms on a radial maze were increased from 8 to 16 and then to 24.[5] Cole and Chappell-Stephenson, using a radial maze with food locations ranging from 8 to 48, estimated the limit of spatial memory in rats to be between 24 and 32 locations.

In one experiment utilizing the radial arm maze, it was shown that spatial relations among hidden target sites control spatial decisions that rats make are unrelated to visual or perceptual cues that are related to certain locations.

In mice, large differences in learning ability exist among different inbred strains. These differences appear to be correlated with the size of a part of the hippocampal mossy fiber projection.
The radial arm maze has shown to be practicable in the application how drugs affect memory performance. It has also been shown to be responsive in distinguishing the cognitive affects of an array of toxicants.